This is an experimental computational book created in co-operation with Computational ClassNotes and Loss of Generality based on notes developed by Prof. Conor Ryan in the Computer Science and Information Systems Department at the University of Limerick in Ireland for CS4221 Foundations of Computer Science.

This edition is being offered free to UL students taking CS4221 in the Autumn Semester of 2018/19. If you encounter any bugs, please report them to

This version will follow the delivery of CS4221, with new sections being added after each lecture.